Officer Views in Contracting, Merger, and Hybrid Agencies. Policing: An International Journal, Vol. 42 (2): 270-283, 2019.

The purpose of this paper is to assess officer perceptions of consolidation of law enforcement agencies under three specific models: contracting, merger and a hybrid of regionalization and contracting. A survey was administered to 139 officers employed by four agencies using one of the models of interest. Officers generally support consolidation, but views vary by agency type. Officers in the contracting agencies, for example, generally viewed consolidation as less cost effective than officers in other agencies viewed it, but were more…

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Examining Officer Support for and Perceived Effects of Police Consolidation. Policing: An International Journal, Vol. 41(6): 828-843, 2018.

The current study surveys 139 officers employed by four agencies that have recently undergone a consolidation of police services.While officers generally support consolidation, views on the effects of shared services vary significantly by level of support. Officers who most strongly support consolidation are also most likely to view it as leading to improvements in some working conditions (e.g. job satisfaction, morale), elements of organizational capacity (e.g. professionalism, investigative/intelligence capacity, recruitment), and the delivery of services (e.g. cost-effectiveness, quality and efficiency…

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A Multi-Site Assessment of Police Consolidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2018.

To develop practical resources for policymakers and practitioners, we used a multi-method approach to examine the implementation and effectiveness of three models of police consolidation: merger of agencies, regionalization under which two or more agencies join to provide services in a broader area, and contracting by municipalities with other organizations for police services. Specifically, we conducted field visits, surveys of residents and police officers, and analysis of crime data in four communities that had consolidated their police services. Read More

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The 2017 A-CAPP Center Brand Protection Strategy Summit: Issues and Best Practices in Partnerships, Return on Investment, and E-Commerce. Center for Anti-Counterfeiting and Product Protection Paper Series. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, 2018.

This proceedings report reviews discussions that occurred as part of the Michigan State University Center for Anti-Counterfeiting and Product Protection Brand Protection Strategy Summit in October, 2017. Read More

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A Preliminary Investigation of Pharmaceutical Counterfeiters in the United States. Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice and Criminology, Vol. 7 (1): 49-74, 2018.

The extant literature lacks a systematic investigation of the specific roles undertaken within pharmaceutical counterfeiting schemes. We attempt to address this knowledge gap through an analysis of individuals convicted in federal court of counterfeiting offenses related to U.S.-based pharmaceutical counterfeiting incidents. From our investigation we identified six distinct roles that can classify an individual’s involvement in a pharmaceutical counterfeiting scheme: Key/Lead, Supporting, Sales/Distribution to Legitimate Others, Sales/Distribution to Illegitimate Others, Production, and Purchase. Through an examination of these roles and…

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The Effects of Police Contracting on Crime: An Examination of Compton, California. Journal of Experimental Criminology, Vol. 14 (1): 59-81, 2018.

The utility of police consolidation, and in particular police contracting of services, has received widespread attention in academic and practitioner circles. However, the bulk of empirical research centers on potential fiduciary benefits; only limited scholarship has explored the possibility that changes in police services may correspond with differences in crimes solved and offenses observed. To address this gap, we examine consolidation in police services in a historically high crime, disadvantaged urban setting (Compton, California), which began contracting with the Los…

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Consolidation of Police and Fire Services in the United States. International Criminal Justice Review, Vol. 27 (3), 203-221, 2017.

More than 100 municipalities across the United States have consolidated their police, fire, and emergency medical services into a single, consolidated agency. As initial reasons to consolidate change or diminish, some agencies have deconsolidated, but many remained consolidated. In this work, we use perspectives of contingency theory and institutional theory of organizations to explore why agencies may remain consolidated. Data and insights are drawn from two expert panels and a series of seven case studies. We found contingency theory helps explain why…

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